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The use of company or product name s is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. This edition supersedes any previously released draft or final profile. Toxicological profiles are revised and republished as necessary. This page is intentionally blank. The original guidelines were published in the Federal Register on April 17, Each profile will be revised and republished as necessary. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described therein.

Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substances toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced.

ATSDR - Toxicological Profile for Aluminium.pdf

The focus of the profiles is on health and toxicologic information; therefore, each toxicological profile begins with a public health statement that describes, in nontechnical language, a substances relevant toxicological properties. Following the public health statement is information concerning levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine a substances health effects is described in a health effects summary. A The examination, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic information and epidemiologic evaluations on a hazardous substance to ascertain the levels of significant human exposure for the substance and the associated acute, subacute, and chronic health effects;.

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B A determination of whether adequate information on the health effects of each substance is available or in the process of development to determine levels of exposure that present a significant risk to human health of acute, subacute, and chronic health effects; and. C Where appropriate, identification of toxicologic testing needed to identify the types or levels of exposure that may present significant risk of adverse health effects in humans.

The principal audiences for the toxicological profiles are health professionals at the Federal, State, and local levels; interested private sector organizations and groups; and members of the public. This profile reflects ATSDRs assessment of all relevant toxicologic testing and information that has been peer-reviewed. Staff of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other Federal scientists have also reviewed the profile.

Final responsibility for the contents and views expressed in this toxicological profile resides with ATSDR. Howard Frumkin M. Julie Louise Gerberding, M. The availability of the revised priority list of hazardous substances was announced in the Federal Register on December 7, 70 FR Each profile reflects a comprehensive and extensive evaluation, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic and epidemiologic information on a substance.

Health care providers treating patients potentially exposed to hazardous substances will find the following information helpful for fast answers to often-asked questions. Chapter 1: Public Health Statement: The Public Health Statement can be a useful tool for educating patients about possible exposure to a hazardous substance. It explains a substances relevant toxicologic properties in a nontechnical, question-and-answer format, and it includes a review of the general health effects observed following exposure. Chapter 2: Relevance to Public Health: The Relevance to Public Health Section evaluates, interprets, and assesses the significance of toxicity data to human health.

Chapter 3: Health Effects: Specific health effects of a given hazardous compound are reported by type of health effect death, systemic, immunologic, reproductive , by route of exposure, and by length of exposure acute, intermediate, and chronic. In addition, both human and animal studies are reported in this section. NOTE: Not all health effects reported in this section are necessarily observed in the clinical setting. Please refer to the Public Health Statement to identify general health effects observed following exposure.

Pediatrics: Four new sections have been added to each Toxicological Profile to address child health issues: Section 1. Other Sections of Interest: Section 3. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Taking an Exposure HistoryThe importance of taking an exposure history and how to conduct one are described, and an example of a thorough exposure history is provided. Other case studies of interest include Reproductive and Developmental Hazards; Skin Lesions and Environmental Exposures; Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticide Toxicity; and numerous chemical-specific case studies.

Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents is a three-volume set of recommendations for on-scene prehospital and hospital medical management of patients exposed during a hazardous materials incident.


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Volumes I and II are planning guides to assist first responders and hospital emergency department personnel in planning for incidents that involve hazardous materials. The National Center for Environmental Health NCEH focuses on preventing or controlling disease, injury, and disability related to the interactions between people and their environment outside the workplace.

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIEHS is the principal federal agency for biomedical research on the effects of chemical, physical, and biologic environmental agents on human health and well-being. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ACOEM is an association of physicians and other health care providers specializing in the field of occupational and environmental medicine.

Health Effects Review. The Health Effects Review Committee examines the health effects chapter of each profile for consistency and accuracy in interpreting health effects and classifying end points. Minimal Risk Level Review. Data Needs Review.

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The Applied Toxicology Branch reviews data needs sections to assure consistency across profiles and adherence to instructions in the Guidance. Green Border Review. These experts collectively have knowledge of aluminum's physical and chemical properties, toxicokinetics, key health end points, mechanisms of action, human and animal exposure, and quantification of risk to humans.

All reviewers were selected in conformity with the conditions for peer review specified in Section I 13 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended. A listing of the peer reviewers' comments not incorporated in the profile, with a brief explanation of the rationale for their exclusion, exists as part of the administrative record for this compound. The citation of the peer review panel should not be understood to imply its approval of the profile's final content.

Hypothetical Chemical Substance Existing Information on Health Effects of Aluminum Genotoxicity of Aluminum In Vitro Ongoing Studies on Aluminum Chemical Identity of Aluminum and Compounds Physical and Chemical Properties of Aluminum and Compounds Manufacturers of Aluminum Producers of Selected Aluminum Compounds Fume or Dust Oxide Fibrous Forms United States Estimated Aluminum Concentrations of Selected Foods Dietary Intakes of Aluminum in Children Regulations and Guidelines Applicable to Aluminum and Compounds These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List NPL and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities.

Aluminum in some form, e. Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which aluminum is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to this substance at high levels may be harmful.

When a substance is released either from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment.


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Such a release does not always lead to exposure. You can be exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact. However, it should be noted that aluminum is a very abundant and widely distributed element and will be found in most rocks, soils, waters, air, and foods. You will always have some exposure to low levels of aluminum from eating food, drinking water, and breathing air.

If you are exposed to aluminum, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. These factors include the dose how much , the duration how long , and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider any other chemicals you are exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.

Description Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust and it is widely distributed. Aluminum is a very reactive element and is never found as the free metal in nature. It is found combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. These chemical compounds are commonly found in soil, minerals e. Aluminum as the metal is obtained from aluminum-containing minerals, primarily bauxite.

Aluminum metal is light in weight and silvery-white in appearance. Uses Aluminum Aluminum is used to make beverage cans, pots and pans, airplanes, siding metal and roofing, and foil.

ATSDR - Toxicological Profile: Aluminum

Powdered aluminum metal is often used in explosives and fireworks. Aluminum Aluminum compounds are used in many diverse and important industrial compounds applications such as alums aluminum sulfate in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. Consumer Aluminum is found in consumer products including: products antacids astringents buffered aspirin food additives antiperspirants cosmetics. For more information on the physical and chemical properties of aluminum and its production, disposal, and use, see Chapters 4 and 5. High levels in the environment can be caused by the mining and processing of aluminum ores or the production of aluminum metal, alloys, and compounds.

Small amounts of aluminum are released into the environment from coal-fired power plants and incinerators. Break down Aluminum cannot be destroyed in the environment. It can only change its form or become attached or separated from particles.

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Air Aluminum particles in air settle to the ground or are washed out of the air by rain. However, very small aluminum particles can stay in the air for many days. Water and soil Most aluminum-containing compounds do not dissolve to a large extent in water unless the water is acidic or very alkaline. Foodprimary Unprocessed foods like fresh fruits, vegetables, and meat contain very little source of aluminum.

An average adult in the United States eats about 79 mg of aluminum per day in their food. Air Most people take in very little aluminum from breathing. Levels of aluminum in the air generally range from 0. Most of the aluminum in the air is in the form of small suspended particles of soil dust. Aluminum levels in urban and industrial areas may be higher and can range from 0.

Water and soil The concentration of aluminum in natural waters e. People generally consume little aluminum from drinking water. Water is sometimes treated with aluminum salts while it is processed to become drinking water. But even then, aluminum levels generally do not exceed 0. Several cities have reported concentrations as high as 0.