The chemical industry
Natural products are also a well-known resource for the pharmaceutical industry. The challenges of natural product identification have led to a gradual shift away from these biologically made chemicals in favor of the more rapidly accessible synthetic chemical libraries. However, a number of recent papers in Nature Chemical Biology highlight the central importance of natural products to both chemists and biologists. A striking example of natural products chemistry is found in this month's issue of Nature Chemical Biology. Sorensen, Hoye and their colleagues report the isolation and characterization of the migratory pheromone of the sea lamprey p.
Sea lampreys are parasitic fish that have invaded the Great Lakes of North America and devastated stocks of salmon and trout. These organisms have a complex natural history, including a migration from large open waters to rivers for spawning. To guide them to spawning grounds, sea lampreys have evolved specialized chemical sensors that can detect subpicomolar quantities of pheromones produced by larvae.
The authors identified and characterized a mixture of larval steroid-like compounds that attract adult sea lampreys to suitable spawning grounds. Bacteria also use secreted chemicals to communicate with each other. For example, during infection, when strength in numbers is required, individual bacteria produce small molecules known as autoinducers.
By sensing the concentration of these 'quorum-sensing' molecules, bacteria coordinate expression of virulence factors only at high population density. One particular autoinducer, AI-2, is produced by a broad range of bacterial species, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Recently Xavier and Bassler found that the AI-2 quorum sensing of one bacterial species can be disrupted by another bacterial species.
This result is highlighted in this issue by Richard Novick in a News and Views article p.
Increased understanding of how pathogenic bacteria use these small molecules could influence the design of new antibiotics. List of Abbreviations. Directory of Illustrations. Subject Index. This work was carefully translated by David Smith and Bernd Janssen. M Daniel. Signposts to Chiral Drugs. Vitomir Sunjic. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Vol Shashi Lata Bharati.
Medicinal Organometallic Chemistry. Ram Naresh Bharagava. Supramolecular Chemistry.
Peter J. RNA Therapeutics. Amanda L. Biotechnology for Environmental Management and Resource Recovery. Ramesh Chander Kuhad. Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry. Alan R. Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Food. Leo M. Pollutants in Buildings, Water and Living Organisms. Eric Lichtfouse. Tsukasa Mizuhara.
Chemicals Industry Profile
Biosurfactants and Biotechnology. Taro Noguchi. Cold-adapted Yeasts. Pietro Buzzini. Microbial Applications Vol. Vipin Chandra Kalia. Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment. Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi.
Hydroxamic Acids. Satya P. Kunal Roy.
Waterlogging Signalling and Tolerance in Plants. Stefano Mancuso. Physiology of the Cladocera. Nikolai N. Mid-size Drugs Based on Peptides and Peptidomimetics. Hirokazu Tamamura. Heavy Metals in the Environment. Edgardo R. Richard B. Thomas G. Xylanolytic Enzymes. Pratima Bajpai.
The complicated characteristics of the chemical industry
Modern Tools and Techniques to Understand Microbes. Ajit Varma.
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